Human resource development is at the core of Bangladesh's development efforts and access to quality education is critical to poverty reduction and economic development. The Government is committed to undertaking structural reforms that are expected to bring significant improvements in the education sector. Bangladesh's commitment to education has been clearly stated in its Constitution and development plans with education being given the highest priority in the public sector investments. Education sector allocations are currently about 2.3 percent of GDP and 14 percent of total government expenditure. Maintaining this commitment to the education sector is imperative in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The management of the education system falls under two ministries - the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME, responsible for primary education and mass literacy) and the Ministry of Education (MoE, responsible for secondary, vocational and tertiary education). Overall there are more than 17 million students at the primary level, and over 8.0 million at the secondary level. Enrolments at the tertiary level are relatively small but growing very rapidly.
Bangladesh has made significant progress, especially in regard to increasing access and gender equity, both at primary and secondary levels. Gross primary enrollment rates rose from 90 percent in the late 1990s to 98 percent in 2003, while a corresponding increase in enrollment rates at the secondary level rise to 44 percent. Gender parity in access to primary and secondary education has also been achieved. These achievements are particularly spectacular when compared to countries in the South Asia region and other countries at similar levels of per-capita income.
The Government is strongly committed to alleviating the existing problems in respect of management and quality through reforms across the education system. At the primary level, MoPME is supported by
March 1972 Ministry of Education, Religion, Sports & Cultural Affairs
December 1974 Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs
March 1984 Ministry of Education and Science & Technology
August 1993 Ministry of Education
Click here to view the flow diagram of education structure of bangladesh
Structure of the Education System
Education in Bangladesh has three major stages-primary, secondary and higher educations. Primary education is a 5-year cycle while secondary education is a 7- year one with three sub-stages: 3 years of junior secondary, 2 years of secondary and 2 years of higher secondary. The entry age for primary is 6 years. The junior, secondary and higher stages are designed for age groups 11-13, 14-15 and 16-17 years. Higher secondary is followed by graduate level education in general, technical, engineering, agriculture, business studies, and medical streams requiring 5-6 years to obtain a Masters degree.
In the general education stream, higher secondary is followed by college/university level education through the Pass/Honors Graduate Courses (4 years). The masters Degree is of one year's duration for holders of Bachelor Degree (Honors) and two years duration for holders of (Pass) Bachelor Degree. Higher education in the technical area also starts after higher secondary level. Engineering, agriculture, business, medical and information & communication technology are the major technical and technological education areas. In each of the courses of study, except for medical education, a 5- year course of study is required for the first degree.
Different Streams in Education
Primary level education is provided under two major institutional arrangements (stream)-general and madrasha, while secondary education has three major streams: general, technical-vocational and madrasha. Higher education, likewise, has 3 streams: general (inclusive of pure and applied science, arts, business and social science), madrasha and technology education. Technology education in its turn includes agriculture, engineering, medical, textile, leather technology and ICT. Madrashas (Arabic for educational institution), functional parallel to the three major stages, have simila
Education System in Bangladesh is being managed and administered by two Ministries, Ministry of Education (MoE) and Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Division in association with the attached Departments and Directorates as well as a number of autonomous bodies.
Ministry of Education
This Ministry is concerned with policy formulation, planning, monitoring, evaluation and execution of plans and programs related to post primary secondary and higher education including technical & madrasha education. The line directorates, viz.. Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education and Directorate of Technical Education are responsible for management and supervision of institutions under their respective control.
Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE)
This Directorate is headed by a Director-General who is responsible for administration, management and control of post primary secondary and higher education including madrasha and other special types of education. It is assisted by sub-ordinate Offices located at the division and district levels with project offices at upazilas.
The Directorate of Technical Education (DTE)
This Directorate is headed by a Director-General and is responsible for the management and administration of technical & vocational institutions like polytechnics, monotechnics and other similar types of institutes. It has Inspectorate Offices at the Divisional Headquarters.
Bangladesh National Commission for UNESCO (BNCU)
This organization functions as a corporate body within the MoE. This is headed by the Minister of Education as Chairman and the Education Secretary as the Secretary-General. The Commission consists of 69 members constituted by eminent educationists and intellectuals interested in educational, scientific and cultural fields of the country. The Secretariat of the Commission is normally headed by a government official designated as Secretary.
Chief Accounts Office (CAO)
In pursuance of the Government