This course, organised by ESHRE SIG Endometriosis and Endometrial Disorders, is aimed at clinicians, clinical researchers, basic scientists and patient associations with an interest in endometriosis-associated pain. It will combine expertise from the fields of pain neuroscience and endometriosis to provide an update on current knowledge regarding mechanisms generating and maintaining pain, as well as research methodologies for both preclinical and clinical research. This includes exciting talks about peripheral, central and visceral pain mechanisms, as well as hormonal influences on pain. After reviewing the role of the somatic nervous system in endometriosis, the role of neuropelveology as a new approach to pelvic pain and dysfunction will be discussed. Next, in-depth reviews of comorbid pain conditions and alterations in the central nervous system specifically for endometriosis will be presented. After discussing the role of the pelvic inflammatory environment and macrophage function on endometriosis-pain, these insights will be translated to research, such as animal models for pelvic pain, and the importance of patient-reported outcome measures and standardisation of data collection will be investigated.