In the past few years, incidents of hate crime against Muslims have significantly increased. Acid attacks in London, burning mosques in Germany, beating veiled Muslim women in the Netherlands are only examples. This increase has been documented by various studies, like the European Union Minorities and Discrimination survey, the OSCE's Hate Crime Reporting and the annual European Islamophobia Report. However, the most concerning aspect of these incidents and of the growing anti-Muslim sentiment and movements in Europe, seems to be its normalization aspect. It has become normal that Muslims are discriminated, we have become used to another ‘hate crime’ committed against Muslims, without such crimes ever labelled as committed by radicalised persons and without paying too much thought to it. Dr Farid Hafez from Austria, lecturer at Salzburg University and Senior Fellow at Georgetown University, is also the co-editor of the European Islamophobia report. Dr Hafez will give us more insight into what anti-Muslim hatred is, what types of crimes Muslims have been subject to in Europe and how the normalization process has been successful.
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