Riverhead is a town within Suffolk County, New York, on the north shore of Long Island. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,506. The town rests on the mouth of the Peconic River, from which it derives its name. Since 1727, Riverhead has been the county seat of Suffolk County. The smaller hamlet of Riverhead lies within it, and is the town's principal economic center. The town is 166 miles (267 km) southwest of Boston via the Orient Point-New London Ferry, and is 76 miles (123 km) northeast of New York City.In the beginning of the 20th century, the town saw an influx of Polish immigrants. This led to the creation of Polish Town, where the popular Polish Town Fair is held annually.Riverhead is the agricultural apex of Long Island, with 20,000 of the 35,000 acres of the island's farmland located within the town. The town is also home to four separate beaches which are open year round. Iron Pier, Wading River, and Reeves Beach each offer boating access for residents and visitors alike.HistoryEuropean colonists purchased the "Southold land" from the local Algonquian-speaking Native Americans and Shinnecock Indian Nation in 1649. An additional portion was purchased from Col. William Smith and divided among settlers in 1742.