Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu Province, China. Its population was 8,577,225 at the 2010 census whom 2,623,066 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Quanshan, Gulou, Yunlong and Tongshan districts. It is known for its role as a transportation hub in northwestern Jiangsu, as it has expressways and railway links connecting directly to the provinces of Henan and Shandong, the neighboring port city of Lianyungang, as well as the economic hub Shanghai.RomanizationBefore the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was typically romanized as Suchow or Süchow, though it also appeared as Siu Tcheou, Hsu-chou, Hsuchow, and Hsü-chow.HistoryEarly historyThe early prehistoric relics around Xuzhou are classified as Dawenkou culture system. Liulin site together with Dadunzi site, Huating site, and Liangwangcheng site correspond to the initial, middle and late stages of this culture, respectively. While the remains of sacrificial rituals performed to Tudi deity found at Qiuwan site and Gaohuangmiao site, both of them are in the outskirts of the city, indicate that Shang dynasty affected the area. History relates that Peng or Great Peng, the transitions from a tribe to a chiefdom contained within the boundary of the city. Peng Zu is believed to be the first chief, while the state was eventually conquered by King Wu Ding of Shang in around 1208 BC..